According to the Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) about 10% of the amphibians in Indonesia are at risk of extinction, 3 species are listed as Critically Endangered while another 10 species were evaluated as Endangered and 26 as Vulnerable. However, it should be noted that nearly 35% of the amphibians of Indonesia are placed in the data deficient category and therefore a true assessment can only be made once information becomes available on these species.


  • The major threat to Indonesian amphibians is the loss of habitats through deforestation.
  • Indonesians have managed the land for centuries by using fire in order to facilitate shifting agriculture and livestock grazing, which has reduced the available habitat for amphibians.
  • In the last century, urban development in key amphibian habitats has dramatically increased ecosystem degradation.
  • A vast majority of Indonesian amphibians occupy regions that are subjected to commercial logging and industrialization that have resulted in the reduction of natural forest cover.
  • Pollution, especially by garbage, industrial, military, agricultural and forestry effluents has further contributed to the decline of amphibian populations.

Conservation Actions

  • Measures taken to protect habitats and key resources of amphibians
  • Land and water management techniques modified to minimize the impact on amphibians
  • Restoration of habitats and natural processes
  • Preparing and implementing species recovery programmes for selected species
  • Ex-situ conservation carried out for selected species