Armenia is located in the north-eastern part of the Armenian Plateau and occupies 29,740 km2 at altitudes ranging from 380 to 4,095 meters above sea level. This difference in altitudes has created a series of highly diverse landscapes going from deserts to Alpine meadow, with mountains, steppes and forests. The geographical location, geological complex structure, vertical zonation and location of the country at the junction of major biogeographical zones have contributed to the evolution of rich biodiversity and different types of natural ecosystems.

The biodiversity of Armenia is especially rich in economically valuable, rare and endemic species. There are approximately 2,000 valuable species of plants, with characteristics ranging from nutritive and curative properties, to fodder or oil, honey and resin production. Animals are also economically valuable for their fur and meat. There are numerous species of wild crop relatives and animal genes, making Armenia one of the centers of cattle breeding and agriculture.

Despite its small area, about 3,600 species of vascular flowering plants and more than 17,500 animal species (including 545 species of vertebrates) are found in Armenia. The rate of endemism is also very high: there are 125 endemic vascular plant species, which is about 3% of the total flora diversity of the country, and 339 endemic species of terrestrial fauna, including 316 invertebrates.

In the country, 12.8% of the area representing at least 60% of the flora and fauna species, is currently protected. There are 3 State Reserves, 26 State Reservations, 4 National Parks and an 232 Natural Monuments.

There are two IUCN Members in the country. The Armenian Society for the Protection of Birds (ASPB), a BirdLife affiliate organization, and the Foundation for the Preservation of Widlife and Cultural Assets (FPWC) which joined in 2011.

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