What Is It?
An individual's capacity for change or reform has a number of prerequisites:
Awareness + Understanding + Skills + Technology + Resources + Attitudes/Aspirations
The capacity needs assessment methodology focuses on human resource capacity, so addresses the capacity gaps of key individuals in terms of their knowledge (awareness + understanding), skills and attitudes (KSA) to perform key actions.
This focus of the Learner KSA Gap Analysis is the specific actions that must be performed to achieve the identified objectives and outcomes. An analysis of a learner's job allows for a better understanding of what the learner usually does in the course of their and at what level they need to perform to implement certain actions.
Three steps are required:
- 1. Job-task-KSA analysis (knowledge, skills and attitudes) or what is required;
- An assessment of the learner; and
- An analysis of the gap between what is required and what is currently happening.
To assess accurately the capacity of an individual to perform key functions or actions in order to achieve a desired outcome(s) or objective(s).
A documented assessment of capacity and gaps currently impacting on an individual's ability to perform to a desired level or implement desired actions.
It is important that this assessment does not turn into an impromptu job performance appraisal. Care needs to be taken to ensure that consent and a clear mandate from senior management are provided so that both the assessor and the subject understand the purpose of the assessment, what information will be collected, and how it will be used.
A well-prepared series of questions that will be asked of key individuals.
Low to medium – assessment is with individuals or within a focus group.
- Clearly identify the key actions required and those individuals with the responsibility to perform these actions.
- Identify, in the context of the key actions to be performed, the general profile of the learner (based on assumptions if necessary), such as background, past experience, the organizational context and type of job.
- Define the required level of performance an individual needs to achieve for a given action and (if necessary) break this down into about five main tasks and perhaps even sub-tasks if required. Further assess the knowledge, skills and attitudes required at each task level.
- Prepare a checklist and series of questions that need to be explored with the learner.
- Identify the best approach for exploring the identified issues given the resources available and the number of assessments required. For example:
- Visit as a team or split up the team.
- Look for more people to help.
- Invite representatives of the learners' organizations and institutions for a meeting or a workshop.
- Visit, invite, make phone calls, send emails or letters to reach key informants who have a good understanding of the relevant issues.
- Select appropriate methods, depending on your own experience and the approach identified. For example:
- Using secondary information, e.g. reports from the organization, job descriptions, etc.
- Individual interviews
- Group interviews
- PRA tools
- Brainstorming meetings
- Problem tree analysis or SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis
- Summarise the findings in a report to key individuals involved in the interview process. This report can be used as a basis for further discussion of capacity needs at the individual level (and can be combined with the organizational analysis). A useful reporting framework may be:
Forest extension officer
Community forestry assessment
|Required action/task 1:
Negotiation with community – preparing the management plan
No facilitation/ negotiation skills
Good relationship with villagers, but tends to work with men and avoid women
Improved understanding of community forest management plan process
RECOFTC (2002) Community-Based Forest Resource Conflict Management: A Training Package, Volume 2. RECOFTC, Bangkok.