Groupers of the World: A Field and Market Guide
Groupers of the World is a guide to all the more than 160 recognised species of these mostly large, colourful, tropical reef fishes, also known as rockcod. The publication has up-to-date biological, ecological and population information for each species, including an assessment of conservation status.
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Fishing groupers towards extinction
Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery
Groupers are a valuable fishery resource of reef ecosystems and are among those species most vulnerable to fishing pressure because of life history characteristics including longevity, late sexual maturation and aggregation spawning. Despite their economic importance, few grouper fisheries are regularly monitored or managed at the species level, and many are reported to be undergoing declines. To identify major threats to groupers, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria were applied to all 163 species. Better management of fishing and other conservation efforts are urgently needed, and we provide examples of possible actions and constraints.