Pilot site: Pozuelos microregion
Located in the Coastal Plain of Chiapas, Tapachula municipality, Pozuelo microregion forms the lagoon system within Gancho Murillo Ecological Conservation Area. The ejido Conquista Campesina,is part of this area. The Coastal Plain consists of Quaternary surficial deposits and Pliocene, allowing storage of layers of clay and sand rich in nutrients.
The vegetation consists of different structures of mangrove, fields, pastures induced and modified palm. It has an area of 3550 has within Pozuelo-Murillo lagoon system. The climate is warm sub humid with summer rains, has an average annual temperature of 28.1 ° C and average annual precipitation of 1.33. Mm.
The ejido has a large youth population. More than 50% of its inhabitants are under 25 years. The ejidatarios are mostly subsistence maize producers. Other crops grown in the village are sesame, banana, watermelon and cantaloupe sold locally through intermediaries. Livestock is an activity of high importance to the community because of the income it represents.
Impact of climate scenarios on livelihoods
The alterations in the hydrologic cycle and the frequency and intensity of extreme natural phenomena will bring in major damages to livelihoods for coastal population. The increase in temperature will cause important droughts for population dependent on staple crops. Extreme poverty of the population is added to these threats. The people of communities like Conquista Campesina are highly vulnerable to climate change. Statewide studies indicate a possible increase in areas not suitable for agriculture due to changes in rainfall patterns.
Fishing communities from Gancho Murillo have already sediments in their catchment areas. This represents a reduction of shrimp catch and scales, major products collected by fishermen. Also the reduction of water available due to rainfall decrease and loss in water quality affects the population. The salt wedge affects corn and banana plantations, and livestock caused by a lack of fresh water available.
Adaptation measures and implementation strategy
- Establishment of local agreements for good water governance through the establishment of a Gancho Murillo committee;
- Coastal ecosystem restoration, conservation, protection and promotion of sustainable fishing in Conquista Campesina.